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Primary Sources: Wars & Conflicts

Thirty Years' War (1618 - 48)

Hanging from The Miseries and Misfortunes of War by Jacques Callot.jpg

Les Grandes Misères de la guerre (The Great Miseries of War) by Jacques Callot, 1633

The Thirty Years' War took place largely within the Holy Roman Empire from 1618 to 1648. One of the most destructive wars in European history, it caused an estimated 4.5 to 8 million deaths, while some areas of Germany experienced population declines of over 50%. Related conflicts include the Eighty Years' War, War of the Mantuan Succession, the Franco-Spanish War, and the Portuguese Restoration War.

Book Sources: Thirty Years War, 1618-48

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