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Citing your Sources

Vancouver Style Examples

Vancouver style:

Vancouver, a "numbered" style, follows rules established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors <>. It is also known as the: Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.

An example of a journal article citation in Vancouver style:

For additional information on citing in Vancouver style see the tutorial from Monash University:

NLM Style Examples

NLM style:

An example of a journal article citation:

An example of a website citation:


*The NLM style guide for authors, editors and publishers is available for free in PDF form from the NLM. Click the link below to access the book "Citing Medicine":

In Text Citation for Vancouver Style

An example of Vancouver Style

Extract from: Klitzman R, Appelbaum PS, Chung W. Return of Secondary Genomic Findings vs Patient Autonomy: Implications for Medical Care. JAMA. 2013;310(4):369-370.

   In April 2013, the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) recommended that clinical laboratories conducting whole genome sequencing (WGS) and whole exome sequencing (WES) for specific clinical indications should also analyze and report any mutations identified from a list of 57 genes considered medically actionable, regardless of whether patients wish to receive the results.1 These recommendations have sparked a heated debate with profound implications for countless physicians and their patients.

   Identification of mutations in these genes2 is not trivial, given the multitude of errors in the scientific literature about the pathogenicity of many genetic variants, the inexact science of predicting pathogenicity computationally, and the inability to perform the necessary functional experiments to test for pathogenicity.

1. Green RC, Berg JS, Grody WW, et al. ACMG recommendations for reporting of incidental findings in clinical exome and genome sequencing.

2. Wheeler DA, Srinivasan M, Egholm M, et al. The complete genome of an individual by massively parallel DNA sequencing. Nature. 2008; 452(7189):872–876. [PubMed: 18421352]

Where to get more help:

Check out the official guide to the Vancouver style in the NLM publication "Citing Medicine" below: