See Basic information below relating to In-Text Citations.
See the APA Style Manual (Chapter 8) for details and additional information and the APA website on In-Text Citations.
|Why to use: Avoid plagiarism by giving credit to your sources.|
What: Author-Date citation system
Add a comma after date, the abbreviation for page (p.) or pages (pp.) if the quotation continues from one page to the next, and show page number(s) where direct quote appears in the original work. If a page number is not available, you may need to show a section of the work (or website), a paragraph number (counting down from the top of a webpage), etc.
(Rebar et al., 2020, p. 19)
When to use: (also see other information in APA Manual)
Where to use:
Reference Quick Guide is a downloadable PDF from APA.org and gives information about
See Basic information below relating to References. See the APA Style Manual for details and additional information and the APA website on References.
References begin on a new page following the text of the document
Center the word "References" in bold font at the top of the page
Special formatting: Use Hanging Indent, 0.5" (in MS Word, Home →Paragraph→Special)
|4 Elements or Sections of a Reference||
|Sections 9.7 - 9.12
Sections 9.13 - 9.17
Sections 9.18 - 9.22
Sections 9.23 - 9.37
Periods used after each section of the Reference.
Do NOT use a period after a DOI or URL
Do NOT use commas between journal volume and issue numbers; use parentheses instead around issue number.
Do italicize punctuation marks that are in an italic reference element (within a book title).
Do NOT italicize punctuation between reference elements (after italic book title).
One author: Author, A. A.
Two authors: Author, A. A., & Author, B.B.
3-20 authors: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C.C.
21 or more authors: include first 19 authors names/initials, insert an ellipsis (three dots separated
See APA Manual Sections 9.7 - 9.12 for more detailed information on formatting authors, capitalization, editors, group authors, and no authors
• Comma after author last name
• One space after each initial
• Ampersand before the
Refers to Date of Publication and typically is only the year (noted within parentheses)
See APA Manual Sections 9.13 - 9.17 for more detailed information.
General instructions for titles include
Do not italicize (use regular font) for works are part of a greater whole or entity, like
See APA Manual Sections 9.18 - 9.22 for more detailed information on definition of a title, format of title elements, series and multivolume works, bracketed descriptions, and works without titles.
Source refers to where users can retrieve the noted work.
Book references no longer show the "location" of publication office, but still show the Publisher name.
DOIs and URLs, if applicable, may also be used as part of the source information.
See details and additional information at the APA Publication Manual, Sections 9.23 - 9.37
See APA Manual, Chapter 10 for templates and source component examples.
|Latin abbreviations and special punctuation||
Certain Latin abbreviations may be commonly used, always appear within parentheses, and may require particular punctuation, such as a period and/or comma (these are highlighted below).
See APA Manual 7th edition, Chapters 9 and 10 for information about References.
See below links below to the APA.org website for online information about References.
See APA Publication Manual Sections 10.1-10.8 for additional information.
See APA.org for online examples of Textual Works.
Textual Works include
See APA Publication Manual Section 10.9 for additional information.
For information on Software and Tests, see APA Publication Manual Sections 10.10 and 10.11.
See APA.org for online examples of Data Sets.
See APA Publication Manual Sections 10.12 -10.14 for additional information.
See APA.org for online examples of Audiovisual Media.
See APA Publication Manual Sections 10.15 -10.16 for additional information.
See APA.org for online examples of Online Media.