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EME 6601 Instructional Design: Instructional Models

Resource guide for Dr. Jillian Powers' class

Instructional Design Models

ADDIE basics:

  • Five step approach:  Analysis - Design - Development - Implement - Evaluate (ADDIE)
  • Florida State University for U.S. Army
  • Part of "Instructional System Design" (ISD) family of instructional design
  • Basic Description

ASSURE basics:

    • Analyze learners
    • State standards and objectives
    • Select strategies, technology, media & materials
    • Utilize technology, media & materials
    • Requre learner participation
    • Evaluate & revise
  • Originally: Heinick, Molenda, Russell & Smaldino
  • Now: Sharon Smaldino, Deborah Lowther, James Russell
  • Basic description

Backwards Design basics:

  • Three basic steps
    • Identify desired results (what you want students to learn)
    • Determine acceptable evidence (how you assess that what students have learned)
    • Plan learning experiences and instruction
  • Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe
  • Also known as "Understanding by Design" or UbD
  • Basic description

John Dewey Model Basics (Progressive Educational Movement):

  • Teacher as facilitator, instead of instructor
    • Allows students to discover their environment, placing importance on the needs and interests of the students
    • Observes students and works with them to improve their problem solving skills
    • Delivers content and background information
    • Student interests greatly influence student learning, with teacher input
    • Promotes group inquiry and collaboration
  • Students as individuals, with interests in their world
    • Learn to interact with their environment
    • Influence their educational track by their interests
    • Develop into independent learners
    • Learn active problem solving, critical thinking, and other skills (project-based learning)
    • Utilize research, experimentation, interdisciplinary collaboration and inquiry
  • Ideal Classroom: "Experimental Knowledge"
    • Students learn by doing (reality must be experienced)
    • Students and teachers have equal voice (democratic ideal)
    • Curriculum is interdisciplinary, including arts and sciences
    • Assessments are varied, including projects, presentations, creations
    • Goals: Students will become independent and productive members of society

Dick & Carey Model basics:

  • Originally Walter Dick and Lou Carey
  • Currently Walter Dick, Lou Carey & James Carey
  • Basic description

Nine Steps (or Conditions) of Learning Basics

  • Different types or levels of learning (each requiring different types of instruction)
  • Robert Gagné
  • Brief description (Instructional

Kemp Design Model basics:

  • 9 circular, non-linear stages, with interdependent elements, although all stages may not be . 
  • Morrison, Ross and Kemp
  • Basic description

Kirkpatrick's Four Level Evaluation Model

  • Evaluation methodology for judging learning processes
    • Reaction - Learning - Behavior - Results
  • Donald Kirkpatrick
  • Basic description 

Rapid Instructional Design (Dave Meier)

  • Four Phases (P's)
    • Preparation - Arouse the interest of the learners
    • Presentation - Introduce the learner's initial encounter with the new knowledge and skills
    • Practice - Ensure the learners integrate their new knowledge and skills
    • Performance - Have the performers apply their new knowledge and skills to real work situtations


  • Basic how-to's can be found in
    • QuestGarden (30-day free trial / $20 for 2-year subscription)
    • Zunal [formerly InstantWebQuest and zWebQuest] (free) 
    • TeacherWeb (30-day free trial / $39 per year subscription)
  • Bernie Dodge, Tom March, San Diego State University 
  • WebQuest Template Sources 
  • Basic description: 

Books and Articles on Instructional Design and Learning Theories