What are the differences among quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?
These three ways of incorporating other writers' work into your own writing differ according to the closeness of your writing to the source writing.
Quotations must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author.
Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly.
Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material.
Source: Purdue Online Writing Lab (Owl)
Common knowledge is information that is accepted and known so widely you do not need to cite it:
Not all facts are common knowledge. You will still need to cite:
Remember, if you have any questions about whether something is common knowledge, ask your professor for advice.
Hughes, H., & Elam, C. (2003). Michelangelo. Grove Art Online. https://doi.org/10.1093/gao/9781884446054.article.T057716
U.S. Census Bureau (2016). Quick facts: Boca Raton city, Florida. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/bocaratoncityflorida/PST120216
UVA Miller Center. (2017). Presidental speeches: Ronald Reagan presidency: January 25, 1988 State of the Union address. Retrieved from https://millercenter.org/the-presidency/presidential-speeches/january-25-1988-state-union-address
Source: McConnell Library Avoiding Plagiarism LibGuide